As per a recent Developer Survey by Stack Overflow, Python is the third most sought-after programming language among developers. It is the most accessible and simplified programming language and provides an extensive support system for test automation frameworks. With more and more implementation of Artificial Intelligence, Python has become a popular choice. Many liked Selenium Python frameworks for test automation are employed for cross-browser and automation browser testing. Python testing frameworks have seen a surge in their demand recently, making it imperative to choose the best Selenium test automation framework that suits your requirements.

Why Python for Test Automation? It is because of its simplicity, intuitiveness, and readability. It is less messy, beginner-friendly, and a highly competitive programming language. It provides a fast learning curve to write scripts in lesser time. Python is easy to understand, so the manual testers feel confident while shifting towards automation.

Let us discuss how to use Selenium Python Frameworks for fulfilling your Selenium Test Automation needs

Apart from PyUnit that is a default Python Testing framework in 2021, there are a myriad of Selenium Python Frameworks available in the market to choose from, below are a few of the top frameworks:

1. PyTest Framework

It is one of the most venerable Python Selenium frameworks for scalable test automation. Being open-source, it is easily accessible by the Development teams, QA teams, and open learning groups for open source projects. It supports Unit, Functional, and API Testing. It is compatible with Python 3.5 and PyPy3 Python versions and is easily installable via Python Package Manager (pip) command. Python Testing Frameworks start with traditional test_ (or end with _test) nomenclature but, PyTest doesn’t carry such restrictions because of its built-in auto-discovery features that look for inherent test modules and functions. Also, with the help of the assert writing feature, there is no need to remember self.assert* names to fetch failing assert statement data. We can not ignore the fact that there are compatibility issues with PyTest, which means you can write test cases with convenience but can’t use them with other testing frameworks. Creating customized HTML reports with Robot Framework is quite tricky. Also, PyTest does not support parallel testing entirely.


Learning and using Pytest is effortless, making it easy to get started with just a little knowledge of any Python Selenium Framework.

-You would also need a Python integrated development environment along with Python Packaging Manager for PyTest installation.

2. Robot Framework

Robot Framework is a popular open-source Python Selenium Frameworks trusted by Python Developers for implementing acceptance testing. Acceptance is also used for Test-Driven Development (TDD) and Robotic Process Automation (RPA) within the automated testing strategy. Robot Framework is Python-based but can also run on .net-basedIronPython and Java-basedJython.Robot Framework uses Keyword style to write test cases. It provides easily understandable HTML reports and screenshots. The Robot framework has a rich API ecosystem that allows smooth integration with third-party tools. It is very well-documented. It follows a keyword-based, data-driven, and Behaviour driven approach for the maintenance of test readability.Itis compatible with Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems and with all applications, be it mobile, web, or desktop.


-The capacities ofRobot Framework can be optimally utilized using Python version 2.7.14 or higher.
-Python Package Manager Command (pip) is used for its installation.
-A development framework like PyCharm Community Edition should be must to download to use the Robot framework.

3. Behave Framework

Behave is a widely used Python Selenium Framework allowing software teams to perform BDD Testing with the latest version as 1.2.7.dev1. Behavior Driven Development, agile software Development Methodology enables developers, testers, and businesses to have a symbiotic collaboration. It functions similarly to SpecFlow andCucumber Framework for automation testing. It uses Gherkin language to make business understandable test case scenarios encouraging Business-Driven Development (BDD). Behave is based on a fundamentally different BDD Framework, making it different from all other Python Selenium Framework. Behave carries a few disadvantages like, it is not supported well in PyCharm environment and can only be used in Black-box testing. The primary requirement for automated browser testing is the need for parallel testing. But it is not supported by Behave because it does not carry any built-in support for parallel test execution.


-It requires Python version 2.7.14 or above.

-Basic knowledge of any of the Behavior Driven Development tools

-Python Package Manager Command (pip) is needed for its installation

-The most preferred development environment like PyCharm or any other IDE is also required to work with Behave.

4.PyUnit (or UnitTest) Framework

UnitTest is another name for PyUnit, which is considered a standard Python Selenium Framework for test automation. PyUnit is a Unit testing framework for Python inspired by JUnit and works similar to other unit testing frameworks. It is the first Python automated Unit Testing Framework- a part of the Python Testing Library. With easy installation and Configuration, UnitTest Python Unit Testing Framework is used by all developers who are getting started with Selenium Test Automation. The test cases follow a usual start with test_ (or end with _test) nomenclature. UnitTest reporting utilizes UnitTest-XML-reporting and generates XML reports like in the case of Selenium Testing with JUnit. The traditional CamelCase naming method derived from JUnit persists even now, making the test code unclear sometimes. Also, there is an increasing need for boilerplate code.


Since UnitTest comes by default with Python, Python Selenium Framework does not require any additional package or module installation.

-Basic knowledge of Python Framework is sufficient to get started with PyUnit.

-In case you are dealing with additional modules, Python Package Manager Command (pip) and IDE would be required.

5.Nose2 Framework

Nose2 is another Selenium Python Framework for dock tests and unit tests and also a successor of Nose. Since it is based on Unittest, so also sometimes known as an extension of UnitTest and supports PyUnit by providing plugins for test execution, test case auto-discovery feature, and allows assembling and collection of documents. Nose2 is a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) for writing functional tests. Its inbuilt plugin ecosystem makes testing simple and faster. It also provides support to decorators, fixtures, classes, parameterized testing modules, complex initialization, and automatic discovery of test cases. Its documentation is limited.


-Nose2 functions with the Unittest module that comes along with the Python Library

-It needs to be installed with the help of Python Package Manager Command (pip).

6. Testify Framework

Python’s Unittest and Nose Python Selenium framework were replaced with Testify, which is more Pythonic in nature. It is an advanced version of Unittest. Testify was created after Unittest so, the tests framed for Unittest demand bare minimum test modifications to work well with Testify. It is mainly used for performing automated Unit, System, and Integration testing. Testify is a successful example of Java Implementation of semantic testing. Testify’s expansive plugin ecosystem contains important properties around reporting and publishing. Other features similar to Nose2 Framework are automatic test discovery, class level set-up, and simple syntax to fixture methods that need to be run once for the whole set of test methods. However, it does not provide extensive documentation, and the scope for performing parallel testing makes it quite a challenge.


-Testify is based on the existing Unittest framework, which provides a gradual learning curve

-It only requires the Python Package Manager for installation.

7. Lettuce Framework

Lettuce is a Behavior Driven Development Testing Framework based on Cucumber and Python. This Python Selenium framework was designed to make testing simple and interesting to its users. It is an open-source framework and is usually hosted on GitHub. Its latest version 0.2.23 is called Kryptonite. It uses Gherkin languageto create tests, test scenarios, and feature files using user-friendly keywords. It is the same as Behave Black box testing but can be used for more types of testing. Its execution requires on-time communication between all project stakeholders like developers, testers, marketing managers, and project managers.


-Lettuce needs Python version 2.7.14 or above,

-A prior experience with any BDD Framework

-Python Package Manager (pip) for installation


Selenium is at its best when developers perform automation testing and save time by pushing the changes quickly. The biggest challenge that Selenium has to deal with, even after being known for having a robust testing suite, is the ever-changing nature of the front-end technologies. We focused on various popular Selenium Python Frameworks for testing available today. Each one of them has its respective strengths and weaknesses, however, the choice of the framework you use must be made depending upon the team’s language proficiency and its relevance in the type of project requirements. There are some BDD tools like Behave and Lettuce that are used in case the team comprises non-technical members. PyTest is a great choice over the default Python Selenium framework to leverage the development of complex functional tests. If you are just at the beginning stage and want to know how to use selenium python for testing, Robot Framework should be a great starter.

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