Get useful information on apps testing and development

Top Automation Programming Languages of 2023



In today’s highly competitive world, software development and automation play a significant role in creating robust software applications for businesses. Additionally, emerging technologies like Artificial intelligence, blockchain have given a competitive edge to enterprises. For gaining maximum benefits out of Automation testing, testers require hands-on experience in a minimum of one Automation Programming language. There are numerous programming languages available today, with new ones continuously emerging. No matter which phase you are in, whether starting with automation testing or being an experienced tester planning to learn a new programming language, deciding which language to choose is very critical.


Which Automation Programming Language is the best for testing?


The following list is prepared after considering metrics, like recent trends, language popularity, career prospects, open-source projects, etc. As per TIOBE Index 2021 and IEEE Spectrum Magazine, Java, C, and Python are the top three automation programming languages on the list. Following are the most preferred ones out of the long list of names.




As per the recent Developer Survey by Stack Overflow, JavaScript maintained the top spot for the 8th year in a row as the most commonly used programming language. It supports test automation to a greater extent, especially for front-end development. Many large websites like Instagram, Accenture, Airbnb, and Slack use JavaScript as their preferred front-end development and Automation Programming Language.


  • It follows the shift-left testing approach where even developers play an active part in the testing code development process. Here, the testing team works closely with the development team to implement efficient test automation.
  • JavaScript and Selenium are used together by developers for creating test scenarios for automated browser testing. In this context, pCloudy’s remote Selenium Grid is perfect to use without any source-code change requirement.
  • There are various testing frameworks for JavaScript for unit testing and end-to-end testing like Zest, Mocha, Jasmine, Nightwatch JS, etc.




As per the statistics, it is the most popular automation programming language of 2021. It is open-source and has a track record for developing web & desktop applications, machine learning, network servers, media tools, etc. For any business that is just starting up, Python is the most recommended programming language. It provides library support, reliable integration, and control features. Some of the popular apps built using Python are Youtube, Pinterest, and Instagram. According to recent trends, approximately 2.3 Lakh Live websites (6 Lacs globally and 3.1K in India ) are built using Python.

Stack Overflow’s latest developer survey reports that around 70% of developers chose Python as their most preferred programming language because:


  • Python has a several libraries that help developers perform any function without putting many efforts in writing the code
  • It has a strong Python Community
  • It is object-oriented 
  • Python is comparatively portable and easy to learn automation programming language, making it the best choice for the beginners
  • Selenium-Appium Libraries for Python make automation and cross-browser testing on mobile and desktop easier. The most popular Python Testing Frameworks are PyTest and PyUnit used in Selenium Automation Testing for Cross-Browser Automation Testing.




It is among the popular general-purpose automation programming languages owned by Oracle Corporation.  Applitools Survey reports JAVA to maintain its lead with 43% of its users opting for Java as their go-to language for writing their tests. Enterprises use Java to maintain back-end systems.  More than 3 Billion devices are running applications built on Java.  It comes with comprehensive test frameworks, packages, and knowledge sources making it one of the best automation programming languages. Netflix, Google, Pinterest, Instagram are a few big names that use JAVA. 


  • It provides its users with built-in open-source libraries, a powerful command line, easy integration, IDE Support, etc.
  • It is an Object-Oriented Language that works on Write Once Run Anywhere principle, bringing flexibility in many cross-browser platforms.
  • Allows easy integration of JUnit with Selenium Webdriver to automate tests for web applications.
  • It also provides short test cases to the software developers.


4. C#


C# is created by Microsoft. It is considered one of the best automation programming languages. 67% of the users, as reported by Stack Overflow Developer Survey, prefer C# for their development and automation needs. This language has shown a gradual growing trend as a test automation language. There are many test automation frameworks in C# like NUnit, MSTest, and xUnit.Net support automation and cross-browser testing. Also, many testers prefer C# due to its compatibility with Selenium WebDriver. Companies like Delivery Hero, Microsoft, and Accenture include C# in their tech stack.


  • It is an Object-Oriented and structured programming language
  • It is mostly used on Windows. Also suited for Android, iOS platforms
  • C-Sharp is a Microsoft company that works on .Net Framework
  • Uses Page-Object Model (POM) to create efficient and maintainable test code.


5. PHP


Hypertext Preprocessor is a widely used command-line, a server-side scripting language used for web development and test automation. Most commonly used for mobile applications that require database access. More than 34 Lac live websites use PHP as their preferred Automation Programming Language. Popular organizations like Wikipedia, Facebook, and Yahoo use PHP for their website.  PHP supports the development of e-commerce websites, content-heavy and dynamic web and mobile apps. The most common PHP testing frameworks are BeHat, Codeception, Laravel Dusk, PHPUnit, offering extraordinary benefits in the automation process. XDebug, an extension of PHP, is a powerful debugging tool that improves the PHP development experience.


  • PHP is flexible and easily linkable with HTML /HTML5
  • Provides great error handling features 
  • It is a platform-independent language
  • Good Community Support System.




Another popular Automation programming language is Ruby which has shown an upward trend in the areas of automation. Ruby has seen a growing community of user bases in recent years. Ruby works well with the Selenium framework, hence considered an important component for performing Selenium automation testing. Getting started with Ruby-Selenium is easy as it creates a comfortable environment for running your first cross-browser test with Selenium Webdriver using lesser lines of code. Popular websites using Ruby are Twitter, Bloomberg, Airbnb, and Shopify.


  • It is an Object-Oriented and back-end scripting programming language
  • It is a human-friendly, simple-to-learn language supporting MVC Architecture and enabling automated deployment




It is an open-source Automation programming language that creates the fastest automation tests. SmashTest allows expediting the test execution by writing tests in a tree-like structure. It generates tests ten times faster than any other programming language. However, its documentation process is not that great. SmashTest can perform both API and UI Testing. It comes with a test runner to enable parallel testing and a read–eval–print loop (REPL). It requires downloading the Selenium WebDriver. Its mocking API allows mocking time and geo-location. The Smashtest CLI (Command-Line Interface) consists of tools for CI/CD and REPL interpreter.


  • Helps to test distinct browsers, devices, and operating systems
  • Provides in-built, real-time reports showing the auto-generated screenshots pass/fail status of the test.
  • Super-fast automation
  • Allows to run multiple tests parallely
  • It is easy to understand, has human-readable steps.




VBScript is a programming language developed by Microsoft. It is the lighter version of Visual Basic so, both use similar syntax. It is used in Quick Test Professional (QTP), an automated functional testing tool for coding and executing automated tests. If a tester wants to work on QTP, he must know VBScript.


  • Easy to learn with little knowledge of basic programming skills
  • It is case insensitive language
  • VBScripts is an interpreter and not a compiler (like C++, Java, etc.). It is sometimes also called a line-by-line compiler.


9. TypeScript:

TypeScript is a statically typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScript code. It adds static typing and other features to enhance JavaScript development, making it a popular choice for large-scale applications. TypeScript provides strong type checking, better tooling support, and improved maintainability for larger codebases.

In the context of automation testing, TypeScript is widely used in front-end testing frameworks. For instance, Protractor, a popular end-to-end testing framework for Angular applications, is built with TypeScript. TypeScript’s static typing helps catch errors at compile-time, reducing the chances of runtime errors during test execution. Additionally, the tooling and IDE support for TypeScript make it easier to write, refactor, and debug test scripts.

Test frameworks like TestCafe and Cypress also provide native support for TypeScript, allowing testers to write automated tests using TypeScript syntax. This integration enables seamless test creation, execution, and reporting, providing a robust foundation for front-end automation testing.

10. Kotlin:

Kotlin is a modern programming language that runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and is fully interoperable with Java. It combines object-oriented and functional programming paradigms, offering concise syntax, null safety, and enhanced readability compared to Java.

While Kotlin is predominantly known for its use in Android app development, it is also gaining popularity in automation testing. Testers can leverage Kotlin for writing test scripts that interact with Android applications, simulating user interactions and verifying application behavior.

Katalon Studio, an all-in-one automation testing solution, supports Kotlin as one of the programming languages for test script development. With Kotlin, testers can take advantage of the language’s conciseness, improved null safety, and interoperability with existing Java libraries. This allows for efficient and robust automation testing of Android applications.

Moreover, Appium, a popular mobile automation framework, also provides support for Kotlin. Testers can write Appium-based test scripts in Kotlin to automate mobile application testing across various platforms.

11. Go:

Go, also known as Golang, is a statically typed programming language developed by Google. It is designed to emphasize simplicity, performance, and concurrency, making it suitable for building efficient and scalable applications.

In the context of automation testing, Go is gaining recognition for its ability to create robust and efficient test frameworks. The language’s simplicity and readability contribute to the development of clean and maintainable test scripts. Go’s built-in concurrency features, such as goroutines and channels, enable parallel execution of tests, enhancing test efficiency.

GoConvey and Ginkgo are popular testing frameworks in the Go ecosystem. GoConvey provides a domain-specific language for expressing test cases and assertions concisely, while Ginkgo offers a BDD-style testing framework with expressive syntax. These frameworks, combined with the power of Go, enable testers to build scalable and reliable automation testing solutions.

Furthermore, Go’s cross-compilation capabilities make it suitable for creating automation test tools that can run on different operating systems and architectures, enhancing the portability and versatility of the automation infrastructure.

12. Rust:

Rust is a systems programming language known for its focus on safety, concurrency, and performance. It provides memory safety guarantees without sacrificing speed, making it a reliable choice for building low-level components and tools used in automation testing frameworks.

While not as commonly used in automation testing as some other languages, Rust can be employed to develop robust and performant testing frameworks and libraries. Its memory safety features, such as ownership and borrowing, help prevent common programming errors like null pointer dereferences and data races.
Rust’s strong static typing and expressive syntax make it suitable for developing tools that require high reliability, such as custom test harnesses, result parsers, or performance profiling utilities. Testers and developers can leverage Rust’s ecosystem and package manager, Cargo, to build efficient and safe automation testing solutions.

While the adoption of Rust in the automation testing domain is still evolving, its unique features and focus on safety position it as a language to watch for developing high-performance and reliable testing tools.

These are some additional programming languages that are commonly used in automation testing. Each language has its own strengths and considerations, and the choice of language depends on various factors such as project requirements, existing tech stack, and the skills and preferences of the testing team.

13. Groovy:

Groovy is a dynamic scripting language that runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), making it highly compatible with Java libraries and frameworks. It shares a similar syntax with Java but adds additional features, such as closures and dynamic typing, that enhance productivity and flexibility.

In the context of automation testing, Groovy is often used in conjunction with popular testing frameworks like Geb and Spock. Geb is a powerful web automation and testing framework that leverages Groovy’s expressive syntax to create concise and readable test scripts. It provides a domain-specific language for web testing, allowing testers to write tests in a natural and intuitive manner. Geb’s integration with popular browsers and its ability to interact with page elements make it a valuable tool for web automation testing.

Spock, on the other hand, is a testing and specification framework that combines the power of Groovy and JUnit. It allows testers to write highly readable and maintainable automated test cases using a BDD (Behavior-Driven Development) style. Spock supports both unit testing and integration testing and provides extensive features for test data management, mocking, and reporting.

With Groovy’s dynamic nature and seamless integration with existing Java codebases, it is an excellent choice for extending and enhancing automation testing frameworks. Testers can leverage Groovy’s scripting capabilities to create custom utilities, test data generators, or automation helpers that streamline the testing process.

14. Swift:

Swift is a modern programming language developed by Apple for iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS development. It was designed to provide a clean syntax, type safety, and powerful features while prioritizing performance and safety.

In the realm of automation testing, Swift is primarily used for automating iOS app testing. With frameworks like XCTest, the native testing framework provided by Apple, testers can write automated tests using Swift. XCTest offers robust features for UI testing, performance testing, and unit testing, allowing testers to verify the behavior of iOS apps across different scenarios.

Furthermore, Swift is also compatible with cross-platform mobile automation frameworks like Appium. Appium supports Swift as one of its programming languages, enabling testers to write automation scripts using Swift syntax for testing iOS, Android, and web applications. This versatility makes Swift a valuable choice for organizations that have a diverse range of platforms to test.

Swift’s safety features, including optional types and strong type inference, help catch errors at compile-time and enhance the reliability of automated tests. Its modern syntax and powerful language constructs make test scripts more readable and maintainable, leading to improved productivity for testers.

15. PowerShell:

PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework developed by Microsoft. It provides a command-line shell and scripting language designed for system administration and automation in Windows environments. PowerShell offers a wide range of functionalities and integration capabilities, making it a versatile tool for automation tasks.

In the context of automation testing, PowerShell can be utilized to automate various aspects of the testing process in Windows-based environments. Testers can leverage PowerShell to perform tasks such as test environment setup, test data generation, and test execution.

PowerShell’s scripting capabilities enable testers to automate repetitive tasks, interact with external systems and APIs, and perform data-driven testing. Its seamless integration with Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), Active Directory, and other Microsoft technologies provides extensive control and flexibility for automation testing.

Additionally, PowerShell can be used to execute test scripts written in other languages or frameworks. For example, testers can utilize PowerShell scripts to trigger and manage automated tests written in Selenium WebDriver or other testing frameworks.

The rich ecosystem of PowerShell modules and the availability of community-driven resources make it easier for testers to find solutions and leverage existing scripts and tools for automation testing. PowerShell’s ability to interface with external tools and systems makes it a valuable asset in the automation testing toolkit for Windows environments.




The data above explains the recent best Automation programming Languages for test automation that have a larger user base. However, the trends keep changing with time. Apart from the above-mentioned languages, many other growing programming languages can be considered while making a choice. The choice of programming languages differs from organization to organization and depends on the preference of the testers. May you learn any programming language to make your testing ability stronger, but the main aim is to automate the test completely, detect and report errors in advance, without human intervention, and be able to create reusable tests. It should ensure that the end product proves to be the strength of the enterprise instead of a weakness. All of the programming languages for test automation using Selenium are compatible with pCloudy’s online Selenium Grid comprising thousands of real browsers & operating systems.



Rapid Test Automation

Priyanka Charak

Tech Blogger - She writes about Technology, Mobile Application Development, Internet of Things, E-commerce, Computing and Design with the aim to coalesce new media and technology.

Recent Posts